Before 2006 most Research Use only Elisa kits came from USA.
The most known suppliers are RnD Systems which is the leading suppler of Cytokine and growth factor Elisa’s, Eli pairs and matched antibodies.
For recombination proteins the most knows supplier was Peprotech and for polyclonal antibodies Santa Cruz Bio-reagents from the Californian Coastal city of Santa Cruz.
In 2006 the government of Wuhan China, which has a great contact with the San Francisco California populations decided to invest in Elisa manufacturing. About 9000, yes nine-thousand PhD’s where started about Elisa production. The universities manufactured the antibody pairs the internal standard and would outsource this to local manufacturing companies that cannot export Elisa. These local companies sell the ready to use plated Elisa kits, manufactured mostly on demand to export companies. These export companies are prohibited to manufacture and only do export fro these research use Elisa kits.
Uscnk, Uscnelifescience, Cusabio, Wuhan Elisa, cloud clone, mybiosource made list with genetic horology blasts so they could use the Elisa kits not for only human proteins but also for the animal homologs. These list where distributed to the Gentaur distribution antibody online websites and sold to research labs.
Most of the Life Science Research Elisa kits are now made in China Wuhan. The quantity is very good Especially from USCN Life Science Elisa kits. Some rumors started circulating on Twitter that other suppliers gave house keeping gene Elisas instead of the specific gene they still didn’t have or dint function. These rumors where later confirmed by different research groups analyzing the internal standard and the antibody specificity by Western Blot.
Distributors like Gentaur are aware of these problem and always keep and iso9001 registry of the Corrective Action/Preventive Action (CAPA) in their ERP software.
The detailed structure of antibodies and various fragments, including
isolated domains, from different isotypes and from different species has
become available from X-ray crystallography. Also, amino acid and
nucleotide sequence data have been obtained for thousands of different
chains (Kabat et al., 1991), so that a detailed correlation of primary and
three-dimensional structures can be performed. With this wealth of
information, we can now begin to understand the biological functions of
antibodies in structural terms.
Smoke, smoke-water and aerosols have a stimulatory effect on seed germination and growth vigour of many seedlings, making them potentially useful for different purposes, provided they do not pose a health risk. Therefore, the genotoxicity of two kinds of smoke-water and 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, a variant of the most active smoke compound (3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one) was evaluated using the Vitotox assay. Smoke-water extracts were obtained from burning leaves: Themeda triandra (smoke-water Tt) and a mix of Themeda triandra and Passerina vulgaris (smoke-water Kb). No genotoxic effect was observed for any of the three samples. However, the three samples are toxic at the highest concentrations (3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, 2 ppm; smoke-water Tt, dilutions 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 4; smoke-water Kb, dilution 1 : 1) without addition of S9 mix. Both the butenolide 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one and smoke-water Tt are also toxic at high doses in the presence of S9 (2 ppm and dilutions 1 : 1 and 1 : 2, respectively), but not smoke-water Kb. Thus, from these results, no genotoxicity of these three samples can be assumed, which is accordance with the previous tests performed with 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one and a smoke-water>